Ley Helms-Burton

P.L. 104-114 – Ciento Cuatro Congreso de los Estados Unidos de América
Una Ley Para buscar sanciones internacionales contra el gobierno de Castro en Cuba, para planificar el apoyo de un gobierno de transición que conduzca a un gobierno elegido democráticamente en Cuba, y para otros propósitos.

Presidente Bill Clinton firma Ley Helms-Burton
El Presidente Bill Clinton firma la Ley Helms-Burton en La Casa Blanca, Marzo 12 del 1996

Ley de la Libertad y de la Solidaridad Democrática con Cuba de 1996

(Codificado en el Título 22, Secciones 6021-6091 del Código de los Estados Unidos)

Promulgada por el Senado y la Cámara de Representantes de los Estados Unidos de América en asamblea del Congreso,

SECCIÓN 1. TÍTULO CORTO; TABLA DE CONTENIDO.

(a) Título breve .– Esta Ley puede citarse como la “Ley de la Libertad y de la Solidaridad Democrática con Cuba de 1996”.
(b) Tabla de contenido .– La tabla de contenido de esta Ley es la siguiente:
  Sec. 1. Título corto; Tabla de contenido.
  Sec. 2. Hallazgos.
  Sec. 3. Propósitos.
  Sec. 4. Definiciones.
  Sec. 5. Divisibilidad.

TÍTULO I – FORTALECIMIENTO DE LAS SANCIONES INTERNACIONALES CONTRA EL GOBIERNO DE CASTRO

  Sec. 101. Declaración de política.
  Sec. 102. Ejecución del embargo económico a Cuba.
  Sec. 103. Prohibición contra el financiamiento indirecto de Cuba.
  Sec. 104. Oposición de Estados Unidos a la membresía cubana en instituciones financieras internacionales.
  Sec. 105. Oposición de Estados Unidos a la terminación de la suspensión del gobierno cubano de la participación en la Organización de los Estados Americanos.
  Sec. 106. Asistencia de los estados independientes de la antigua Unión Soviética para el gobierno cubano.
Sec. 107. Transmisión televisiva a cuba.
  Sec. 108. Informes sobre comercio y asistencia a Cuba de otros países extranjeros.
  Sec. 109. Autorización de apoyo a grupos democráticos y de derechos humanos y observadores internacionales.
  Sec. 110. Protección contra la importación de determinados productos cubanos.
  Sec. 111. Retención de asistencia extranjera de países que apoyan la planta nuclear de Juraguá en Cuba.
  Sec. 112. Restablecimiento de remesas familiares y viajes a Cuba.
  Sec. 113. Expulsión de criminales de Cuba.
  Sec. 114. Burós de noticias en Cuba.
  Sec. 115. Efecto de la Ley sobre las actividades legales del Gobierno de los Estados Unidos.
  Sec. 116. Condena del ataque cubano a aviones americanos.

TÍTULO II – ASISTENCIA A UNA CUBA LIBRE E INDEPENDIENTE

  Sec. 201. Política hacia un gobierno de transición y un gobierno elegido democráticamente en Cuba.
  Sec. 202. Asistencia a la población cubana.
  Sec. 203. Programa de coordinación de la asistencia; Implementación e informes al Congreso; reprogramación
  Sec. 204. Terminación del embargo económico a Cuba.
  Sec. 205. Requisitos y factores para determinar un gobierno de transición.
  Sec. 206. Requisitos para determinar un gobierno elegido democráticamente.
  Sec. 207. Liquidación de reclamaciones pendientes de los Estados Unidos sobre bienes confiscados en Cuba.

TÍTULO III – PROTECCIÓN DE LOS DERECHOS DE PROPIEDAD DE LOS NACIONALES DE ESTADOS UNIDOS

  Sec. 301. Conclusiones.
  Sec. 302. Responsabilidad por traficar con bienes confiscados reclamados por nacionales de Estados Unidos.
  Sec. 303. Prueba de propiedad de reclamaciones de bienes confiscados.
  Sec. 304. Exclusividad del procedimiento de certificación de la Comisión de Liquidación de Reclamaciones Extranjeras.
  Sec. 305. Limitación de acciones.
  Sec. 306. Fecha de vigencia.

TÍTULO IV – EXCLUSIÓN DE CIERTOS EXTRANJEROS

Sec. 401. Exclusión de Estados Unidos de extranjeros que han confiscado bienes de Estados Unidos nacionales o que trafican en dicha propiedad.
Sec. 2. RESULTADOS.

The Congress makes the following findings:
(1) The economy of Cuba has experienced a decline of at least 60 percent in the last 5 years as a result
of–
(A) the end of its subsidization by the former Soviet Union of between 5 billion and 6 billion dollars
annually;
(B) 36 years of communist tyranny and economic mismanagement by the Castro government;
(C) the extreme decline in trade between Cuba and the countries of the former Soviet bloc; and
(D) the stated policy of the Russian Government and the countries of the former Soviet bloc to conduct
economic relations with Cuba on strictly commercial terms.
(2) At the same time, the welfare and health of the Cuban people have substantially deteriorated as a
result of this economic decline and the refusal of the Castro regime to permit free and fair democratic
elections in Cuba.
(3) The Castro regime has made it abundantly clear that it will not engage in any substantive political
reforms that would lead to democracy, a market economy, or an economic recovery.
(4) The repression of the Cuban people, including a ban on free and fair democratic elections, and
continuing violations of fundamental human rights, have isolated the Cuban regime as the only completely
nondemocratic government in the Western Hemisphere.
(5) As long as free elections are not held in Cuba, the economic condition of the country and the welfare
of the Cuban people will not improve in any significant way.
(6) The totalitarian nature of the Castro regime has deprived the Cuban people of any peaceful means to
improve their condition and has led thousands of Cuban citizens to risk or lose their lives in dangerous
attempts to escape from Cuba to freedom.
(7) Radio Marti and Television Marti have both been effective vehicles for providing the people of Cuba
with news and information and have helped to bolster the morale of the people of Cuba living under
tyranny.
(8) The consistent policy of the United States towards Cuba since the beginning of the Castro regime,
carried out by both Democratic and Republican administrations, has sought to keep faith with the people
of Cuba, and has been effective in sanctioning the totalitarian Castro regime.
(9) The United States has shown a deep commitment, and considers it a moral obligation, to promote
and protect human rights and fundamental freedoms as expressed in the Charter of the United Nations
and in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
(10) The Congress has historically and consistently manifested its solidarity and the solidarity of the
American people with the democratic aspirations of the Cuban people.
(11) The Cuban Democracy Act of 1992 calls upon the President to encourage the governments of
countries that conduct trade with Cuba to restrict their trade and credit relations with Cuba in a manner
consistent with the purposes of that Act.
(12) Amendments to the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 made by the FREEDOM Support Act require
that the President, in providing economic assistance to Russia and the emerging Eurasian democracies,
take into account the extent to which they are acting to “terminate support for the communist regime in
Cuba, including removal of troops, closing military facilities, and ceasing trade subsidies and economic,
nuclear, and other assistance”.
(13) The Cuban Government engages in the illegal international narcotics trade and harbors fugitives
from justice in the United States.
(14) The Castro government threatens international peace and security by engaging in acts of armed
subversion and terrorism such as the training and supplying of groups dedicated to international violence.
(15) The Castro government has utilized from its inception and continues to utilize torture in various
forms (including by psychiatry), as well as execution, exile, confiscation, political imprisonment, and
other forms of terror and repression, as means of retaining power.
(16) Fidel Castro has defined democratic pluralism as “pluralistic garbage” and continues to make clear
that he has no intention of tolerating the democratization of Cuban society.
(17) The Castro government holds innocent Cubans hostage in Cuba by no fault of the hostages
themselves solely because relatives have escaped the country.
(18) Although a signatory state to the 1928 Inter-American Convention on Asylum and the International
Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (which protects the right to leave one’s own country), Cuba
nevertheless surrounds embassies in its capital by armed forces to thwart the right of its citizens to seek
asylum and systematically denies that right to the Cuban people, punishing them by imprisonment for
seeking to leave the country and killing them for attempting to do so (as demonstrated in the case of the
confirmed murder of over 40 men, women, and children who were seeking to leave Cuba on July 13,
1994).
(19) The Castro government continues to utilize blackmail, such as the immigration crisis with which it
threatened the United States in the summer of 1994, and other unacceptable and illegal forms of conduct
to influence the actions of sovereign states in the Western Hemisphere in violation of the Charter of the
Organization of American States and other international agreements and international law.
(20) The United Nations Commission on Human Rights has repeatedly reported on the unacceptable
human rights situation in Cuba and has taken the extraordinary step of appointing a Special Rapporteur.
(21) The Cuban Government has consistently refused access to the Special Rapporteur and formally
expressed its decision not to “implement so much as one comma” of the United Nations Resolutions
appointing the Rapporteur.
(22) The United Nations General Assembly passed Resolution 47-139 on December 18, 1992,
Resolution 48-142 on December 20, 1993, and Resolution 49-200 on December 23, 1994, referencing
the Special Rapporteur’s reports to the United Nations and condemning violations of human rights and
fundamental freedoms in Cuba.
(23) Article 39 of Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter provides that the United Nations Security
Council “shall determine the existence of any threat to the peace, breach of the peace, or act of
aggression and shall make recommendations, or decide what measures shall be taken . . ., to maintain or
restore international peace and security.”.
(24) The United Nations has determined that massive and systematic violations of human rights may
constitute a “threat to peace” under Article 39 and has imposed sanctions due to such violations of human
rights in the cases of Rhodesia, South Africa, Iraq, and the former Yugoslavia.
(25) In the case of Haiti, a neighbor of Cuba not as close to the United States as Cuba, the United States
led an effort to obtain and did obtain a United Nations Security Council embargo and blockade against
that country due to the existence of a military dictatorship in power less than 3 years.
(26) United Nations Security Council Resolution 940 of July 31, 1994, subsequently authorized the use
of “all necessary means” to restore the “democratically elected government of Haiti”, and the
democratically elected government of Haiti was restored to power on October 15, 1994.
(27) The Cuban people deserve to be assisted in a decisive manner to end the tyranny that has oppressed
them for 36 years, and the continued failure to do so constitutes ethically improper conduct by the
international community.
(28) For the past 36 years, the Cuban Government has posed and continues to pose a national security
threat to the United States.
SEC. 3. PURPOSES.
The purposes of this Act are–
(1) to assist the Cuban people in regaining their freedom and prosperity, as well as in joining the
community of democratic countries that are flourishing in the Western Hemisphere;
(2) to strengthen international sanctions against the Castro government;
(3) to provide for the continued national security of the United States in the face of continuing threats
from the Castro government of terrorism, theft of property from United States nationals by the Castro
government, and the political manipulation by the Castro government of the desire of Cubans to escape
that results in mass migration to the United States;
(4) to encourage the holding of free and fair democratic elections in Cuba, conducted under the
supervision of internationally recognized observers;
(5) to provide a policy framework for United States support to the Cuban people in response to the
formation of a transition government or a democratically elected government in Cuba; and
(6) to protect United States nationals against confiscatory takings and the wrongful trafficking in
property confiscated by the Castro regime.
SEC. 4. DEFINITIONS.
As used in this Act, the following terms have the following meanings:
(1) Agency or instrumentality of a foreign state.–The term “agency or instrumentality of a foreign state”
has the meaning given that term in section 1603(b) of title 28, United States Code.
(2) Appropriate congressional committees.–The term “appropriate congressional committees” means the
Committee on International Relations and the Committee on Appropriations of the House of
Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations and the Committee on Appropriations of the
Senate.
(3) Commercial activity.–The term “commercial activity” has the meaning given that term in section
1603(d) of title 28, United States Code.
(4) Confiscated.–As used in titles I and III, the term “confiscated” refers to–
(A) the nationalization, expropriation, or other seizure by the Cuban Government of ownership or
control of property, on or after January 1, 1959–
(i) without the property having been returned or adequate and effective compensation provided; or
(ii) without the claim to the property having been settled pursuant to an international claims settlement
agreement or other mutually accepted settlement procedure; and
(B) the repudiation by the Cuban Government of, the default by the Cuban Government on, or the failure
of the Cuban Government to pay, on or after January 1, 1959–
(i) a debt of any enterprise which has been nationalized, expropriated, or otherwise taken by the Cuban
Government;
(ii) a debt which is a charge on property nationalized, expropriated, or otherwise taken by the Cuban
Government; or
(iii) a debt which was incurred by the Cuban Government in satisfaction or settlement of a confiscated
property claim.
(5) Cuban government.–(A) The term “Cuban Government” includes the government of any political subdivision of Cuba, and any agency or instrumentality of the Government of Cuba.
(B) For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term “agency or instrumentality of the Government of Cuba” means an agency or instrumentality of a foreign state as defined in section 1603(b) of title 28, United States Code, with each reference in such section to “a foreign state” deemed to be a reference to “Cuba”.
(6) Democratically elected government in cuba.–The term “democratically elected government in Cuba” means a government determined by the President to have met the requirements of section 206.
(7) Economic embargo of cuba.–The term “economic embargo of Cuba” refers to–
(A) the economic embargo (including all restrictions on trade or transactions with, and travel to or from, Cuba, and all restrictions on transactions in property in which Cuba or nationals of Cuba have an interest) that was imposed against Cuba pursuant to section 620(a) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2370(a)), section 5(b) of the Trading with the Enemy Act (50 U.S.C. App. 5(b)), the Cuban Democracy Act of 1992 (22 U.S.C. 6001 and following), or any other provision of law; and
(B) the restrictions imposed by section 902(c) of the Food Security Act of 1985.
(8) Foreign national.–The term “foreign national” means–
(A) an alien; or
(B) any corporation, trust, partnership, or other juridical entity not organized under the laws of the United States, or of any State, the District of Columbia, or any commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States.
(9) Knowingly.–The term “knowingly” means with knowledge or having reason to know.
(10) Official of the cuban government or the ruling political party in cuba.–The term “official of the Cuban Government or the ruling political party in Cuba” refers to any member of the Council of Ministers, Council of State, central committee of the Communist Party of Cuba, or the Politburo of Cuba, or their equivalents.
(11) Person.–The term “person” means any person or entity, including any agency or instrumentality of a foreign state.
(12) Property.–(A) The term “property” means any property (including patents, copyrights, trademarks, and any other form of intellectual property), whether real, personal, or mixed, and any present, future, or contingent right, security, or other interest therein, including any leasehold interest.
(B) For purposes of title III of this Act, the term “property” does not include real property used for residential purposes unless, as of the date of the enactment of this Act–
(i) the claim to the property is held by a United States national and the claim has been certified under title V of the International Claims Settlement Act of 1949; or
(ii) the property is occupied by an official of the Cuban Government or the ruling political party in Cuba.
(13) Traffics.–(A) As used in title III, and except as provided in subparagraph (B), a person “traffics” in confiscated property if that person knowingly and intentionally–
(i) sells, transfers, distributes, dispenses, brokers, manages, or otherwise disposes of confiscated property, or purchases, leases, receives, possesses, obtains control of, manages, uses, or otherwise acquires or holds an interest in confiscated property,
(ii) engages in a commercial activity using or otherwise benefiting from confiscated property, or
(iii) causes, directs, participates in, or profits from, trafficking (as described in clause (i) or (ii)) by another person, or otherwise engages in trafficking (as described in clause (i) or (ii)) through another person, without the authorization of any United States national who holds a claim to the property.
(B) The term “traffics” does not include–
(i) the delivery of international telecommunication signals to Cuba;
(ii) the trading or holding of securities publicly traded or held, unless the trading is with or by a person determined by the Secretary of the Treasury to be a specially designated national;
(iii) transactions and uses of property incident to lawful travel to Cuba, to the extent that such transactions and uses of property are necessary to the conduct of such travel; or
(iv) transactions and uses of property by a person who is both a citizen of Cuba and a resident of Cuba, and who is not an official of the Cuban Government or the ruling political party in Cuba.
(14) Transition government in cuba.–The term “transition government in Cuba” means a government that the President determines is a transition government consistent with the requirements and factors set forth in section 205.
(15) United states national.–The term “United States national” means–
(A) any United States citizen; or
(B) any other legal entity which is organized under the laws of the United States, or of any State, the District of Columbia, or any commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States, and which has its principal place of business in the United States.

SEC. 5. SEVERABILITY.

If any provision of this Act or the amendments made by this Act or the application thereof to any person or circumstance is held invalid, the remainder of this Act, the amendments made by this Act, or the application thereof to other persons not similarly situated or to other circumstances shall not be affected by such invalidation.

TITLE I–STRENGTHENING INTERNATIONAL SANCTIONS AGAINST THE CASTRO GOVERNMENT

SEC. 101. STATEMENT OF POLICY.
It is the sense of the Congress that–
(1) the acts of the Castro government, including its massive, systematic, and extraordinary violations of human rights, are a threat to international peace;
(2) the President should advocate, and should instruct the United States Permanent Representative to the United Nations to propose and seek within the Security Council, a mandatory international embargo against the totalitarian Cuban Government pursuant to chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations, employing efforts similar to consultations conducted by United States representatives with respect to Haiti;
(3) any resumption of efforts by any independent state of the former Soviet Union to make operational any nuclear facilities in Cuba, and any continuation of intelligence activities by such a state from Cuba that are targeted at the United States and its citizens will have a detrimental impact on United States assistance to such state; and
(4) in view of the threat to the national security posed by the operation of any nuclear facility, and the Castro government’s continuing blackmail to unleash another wave of Cuban refugees fleeing from Castro’s oppression, most of whom find their way to United States shores, further depleting limited humanitarian and other resources of the United States, the President should do all in his power to make it clear to the Cuban Government that–
(A) the completion and operation of any nuclear power facility, or
(B) any further political manipulation of the desire of Cubans to escape that results in mass migration to the United States, will be considered an act of aggression which will be met with an appropriate response in order to maintain the security of the national borders of the United States and the health and safety of the American people.

TÍTULO I: FORTALECIMIENTO DE LAS SANCIONES INTERNACIONALES CONTRA EL GOBIERNO DE CASTRO

SEGUNDO. 101. DECLARACIÓN DE POLÍTICA A SEGUIR.

Es el sentido del Congreso que:

(1) los actos del gobierno de Castro, incluidas sus violaciones masivas, sistemáticas y extraordinarias de los derechos humanos, son una amenaza para la paz internacional;

(2) el Presidente debe defender, y debe instruir al Representante Permanente de los Estados Unidos ante las Naciones Unidas para que proponga y busque dentro del Consejo de Seguridad, un embargo internacional obligatorio contra el gobierno cubano totalitario de conformidad con el capítulo VII de la Carta de las Naciones Unidas, Empleando esfuerzos similares a las consultas realizadas por representantes de los Estados Unidos con respecto a Haití;

(3) la reanudación de los esfuerzos por parte de cualquier estado independiente de la antigua Unión Soviética para hacer operativa cualquier instalación nuclear en Cuba, y cualquier continuación de las actividades de inteligencia por parte de un estado de Cuba que tenga como objetivo los Estados Unidos y sus ciudadanos tendrá un impacto perjudicial en la asistencia de los Estados Unidos a dicho estado; y

(4) en vista de la amenaza a la seguridad nacional planteada por la operación de cualquier instalación nuclear, y el continuo chantaje del gobierno de Castro para desatar otra ola de refugiados cubanos que huyen de la opresión de Castro, la mayoría de los cuales encuentra su camino a las costas de los Estados Unidos, Además de agotar los recursos humanitarios y otros recursos limitados de los Estados Unidos, el Presidente debe hacer todo lo que esté a su alcance para dejarle claro al Gobierno cubano que:

(A) la terminación y operación de cualquier instalación de energía nuclear, o

(B) cualquier otra manipulación política del deseo de los cubanos de escapar que resulte en una migración masiva a los Estados Unidos, se considerará un acto de agresión que se encontrará con una respuesta adecuada para mantener la seguridad de las fronteras nacionales de Los Estados Unidos y la salud y seguridad del pueblo estadounidense.

SEC. 102. ENFORCEMENT OF THE ECONOMIC EMBARGO OF CUBA.
(a) Policy.–
(1) Restrictions by other countries.–The Congress hereby reaffirms section 1704(a) of the Cuban
Democracy Act of 1992, which states that the President should encourage foreign countries to restrict
trade and credit relations with Cuba in a manner consistent with the purposes of that Act.
(2) Sanctions on other countries.–The Congress further urges the President to take immediate steps to
apply the sanctions described in section 1704(b)(1) of that Act against countries assisting Cuba.
(b) Diplomatic Efforts.–The Secretary of State should ensure that United States diplomatic personnel
abroad understand and, in their contacts with foreign officials, are communicating the reasons for the
United States economic embargo of Cuba, and are urging foreign governments to cooperate more
effectively with the embargo.
(c) Existing Regulations.–The President shall instruct the Secretary of the Treasury and the Attorney
General to enforce fully the Cuban Assets Control Regulations set forth in part 515 of title 31, Code of
Federal Regulations.
(d) Trading with the Enemy Act.–
(1) Civil penalties.–Subsection (b) of section 16 of the Trading with the Enemy Act (50 U.S.C. App.
16(b)), as added by Public Law 102- 484, is amended to read as follows:
“(b)(1) A civil penalty of not to exceed $50,000 may be imposed by the Secretary of the Treasury on any
person who violates any license, order, rule, or regulation issued in compliance with the provisions of this
Act.
“(2) Any property, funds, securities, papers, or other articles or documents, or any vessel, together with
its tackle, apparel, furniture, and equipment, that is the subject of a violation under paragraph (1) shall, at
the direction of the Secretary of the Treasury, be forfeited to the United States Government.
“(3) The penalties provided under this subsection may be imposed only on the record after opportunity for an agency hearing in accordance with sections 554 through 557 of title 5, United States Code, with the right to prehearing discovery.
“(4) Judicial review of any penalty imposed under this subsection may be had to the extent provided in section 702 of title 5, United States Code.”.
(2) Conforming amendment; criminal forfeiture.–Section 16 of the Trading with the Enemy Act is further amended by striking subsection (b), as added by Public Law 102-393.
(3) Clerical amendments.–Section 16 of the Trading with the Enemy Act is further amended–
(A) by inserting “Sec. 16.” before “(a)”; and
(B) in subsection (a) by striking “participants” and inserting “participates”.
(e) Denial of Visas to Certain Cuban Nationals.–It is the sense of the Congress that the President should instruct the Secretary of State and the Attorney General to enforce fully existing regulations to deny visas to Cuban nationals considered by the Secretary of State to be officers or employees of the Cuban
Government or of the Communist Party of Cuba.
(f) Coverage of Debt-for-Equity Swaps by Economic Embargo of Cuba.– Section 1704(b)(2) of the Cuban Democracy Act of 1992 (22 U.S.C. 6003(b)(2)) is amended–
(1) by striking “and” at the end of subparagraph (A);
(2) by redesignating subparagraph (B) as subparagraph (C); and
(3) by inserting after subparagraph (A) the following new subparagraph:
“(B) includes an exchange, reduction, or forgiveness of Cuban debt owed to a foreign country in return for a grant of an equity interest in a property, investment, or operation of the Government of Cuba (including the government of any political subdivision of Cuba, and any agency or instrumentality of the Government of Cuba) or of a Cuban national; and”; and
(4) by adding at the end the following flush sentence:
“As used in this paragraph, the term ‘agency or instrumentality of the Government of Cuba’ means an agency or instrumentality of a foreign state as defined in section 1603(b) of title 28, United States Code, with each reference in such section to ‘a foreign state’ deemed to be a reference to ‘Cuba’.”.
(g) Telecommunications Services.–Section 1705(e) of the Cuban Democracy Act of 1992 (22 U.S.C.
6004(e)) is amended by adding at the end the following new paragraphs:
“(5) Prohibition on investment in domestic telecommunications services.–Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to authorize the investment by any United States person in the domestic telecommunications network within Cuba. For purposes of this paragraph, an ‘investment’ in the domestic telecommunications network within Cuba includes the contribution (including by donation) of funds or anything of value to or for, and the making of loans to or for, such network.
“(6) Reports to congress.–The President shall submit to the Congress on a semiannual basis a report detailing payments made to Cuba by any United States person as a result of the provision of telecommunications services authorized by this subsection.”.
(h) Codification of Economic Embargo.–The economic embargo of Cuba, as in effect on March 1, 1996, including all restrictions under part 515 of title 31, Code of Federal Regulations, shall be in effect upon the enactment of this Act, and shall remain in effect, subject to section 204 of this Act.

SEC. 103. PROHIBITION AGAINST INDIRECT FINANCING OF CUBA.

(a) Prohibition.–Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no loan, credit, or other financing may be extended knowingly by a United States national, a permanent resident alien, or a United States agency to any person for the purpose of financing transactions involving any confiscated property the claim to which is owned by a United States national as of the date of the enactment of this Act, except for financing by the United States national owning such claim for a transaction permitted under United States law.
(b) Suspension and Termination of Prohibition.–
(1) Suspension.–The President is authorized to suspend the prohibition contained in subsection (a) upon a determination made under section 203(c)(1) that a transition government in Cuba is in power.
(2) Termination.–The prohibition contained in subsection (a) shall cease to apply on the date on which the economic embargo of Cuba terminates as provided in section 204.
(c) Penalties.–Violations of subsection (a) shall be punishable by such civil penalties as are applicable to violations of the Cuban Assets Control Regulations set forth in part 515 of title 31, Code of Federal Regulations.
(d) Definitions.–As used in this section–
(1) the term “permanent resident alien” means an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence into the United States; and
(2) the term “United States agency” has the meaning given the term “agency” in section 551(1) of title 5, United States Code.

SEC. 104. UNITED STATES OPPOSITION TO CUBAN MEMBERSHIP IN INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS.

(a) Continued Opposition to Cuban Membership in International Financial Institutions.–
(1) In general.–Except as provided in paragraph (2), the Secretary of the Treasury shall instruct the United States executive director of each international financial institution to use the voice and vote of the United States to oppose the admission of Cuba as a member of such institution until the President submits a determination under section 203(c)(3) that a democratically elected government in Cuba is in power.
(2) Transition government.–Once the President submits a determination under section 203(c)(1) that a transition government in Cuba is in power–
(A) the President is encouraged to take steps to support the processing of Cuba’s application for membership in any international financial institution, subject to the membership taking effect after a democratically elected government in Cuba is in power, and
(B) the Secretary of the Treasury is authorized to instruct the United States executive director of each international financial institution to support loans or other assistance to Cuba only to the extent that such loans or assistance contribute to a stable foundation for a democratically elected government in Cuba.
(b) Reduction in United States Payments to International Financial Institutions.–If any international financial institution approves a loan or other assistance to the Cuban Government over the opposition of the United States, then the Secretary of the Treasury shall withhold from payment to such institution an amount equal to the amount of the loan or other assistance, with respect to either of the following types of payment:
(1) The paid-in portion of the increase in capital stock of the institution.
(2) The callable portion of the increase in capital stock of the institution.
(c) Definition.–For purposes of this section, the term “international financial institution” means the International Monetary Fund, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the International Development Association, the International Finance Corporation, the Multilateral Investment Guaranty Agency, and the Inter-American Development Bank.

SEC. 105. UNITED STATES OPPOSITION TO TERMINATION OF THE SUSPENSION OF THE CUBAN GOVERNMENT FROM PARTICIPATION IN THE ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES.

The President should instruct the United States Permanent Representative to the Organization of American States to oppose and vote against any termination of the suspension of the Cuban Government from participation in the Organization until the President determines under section 203(c)(3) that a democratically elected government in Cuba is in power.

SEC. 106. ASSISTANCE BY THE INDEPENDENT STATES OF THE FORMER SOVIET UNION FOR THE CUBAN GOVERNMENT.

(a) Reporting Requirement.–Not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the President shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report detailing progress toward the withdrawal of personnel of any independent state of the former Soviet Union (within the meaning of section 3 of the FREEDOM Support Act (22 U.S.C. 5801)), including advisers, technicians, and military personnel, from the Cienfuegos nuclear facility in Cuba.

(b) Criteria for Assistance.–Section 498A(a)(11) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2295a(a)(11)) is amended by striking “of military facilities” and inserting “military and intelligence facilities, including the military and intelligence facilities at Lourdes and Cienfuegos”.
(c) Ineligibility for Assistance.–
(1) In general.–Section 498A(b) of that Act (22 U.S.C. 2295a(b)) is amended–
(A) by striking “or” at the end of paragraph (4);
(B) by redesignating paragraph (5) as paragraph (6); and
(C) by inserting after paragraph (4) the following new paragraph:
“(5) for the government of any independent state effective 30 days after the President has determined and certified to the appropriate congressional committees (and Congress has not enacted legislation disapproving the determination within that 30-day period) that such government is providing assistance for, or engaging in nonmarket based trade (as defined in section 498B(k)(3)) with, the Cuban Government; or”
(2) Definition.–Subsection (k) of section 498B of that Act (22 U.S.C. 2295b(k)) is amended by adding at the end the following new paragraph:
“(3) Nonmarket based trade.–As used in section 498A(b)(5), the term ‘nonmarket based trade’ includes exports, imports, exchanges, or other arrangements that are provided for goods and services (including oil and other petroleum products) on terms more favorable than those generally available in applicable markets or for comparable commodities, including–
“(A) exports to the Cuban Government on terms that involve a grant, concessional price, guaranty, insurance, or subsidy;
“(B) imports from the Cuban Government at preferential tariff rates;
“(C) exchange arrangements that include advance delivery of commodities, arrangements in which the Cuban Government is not held accountable for unfulfilled exchange contracts, and arrangements under which Cuba does not pay appropriate transportation, insurance, or finance costs; and
“(D) the exchange, reduction, or forgiveness of debt of the Cuban Government in return for a grant by the Cuban Government of an equity interest in a property, investment, or operation of the Cuban Government or of a Cuban national.
“(4) Cuban government.–(A) The term ‘Cuban Government’ includes the government of any political subdivision of Cuba, and any agency or instrumentality of the Government of Cuba.
“(B) For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term ‘agency or instrumentality of the Government of Cuba’ means an agency or instrumentality of a foreign state as defined in section 1603(b) of title 28, United States Code, with each reference in such section to ‘a foreign state’ deemed to be a reference to ‘Cuba’.”.
(3) Exception.–Section 498A(c) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2295A(c)) is amended by inserting after paragraph (3) the following new paragraph:
“(4) The assistance is provided under the secondary school exchange program administered by the United States Information Agency.”.
(d) Facilities at Lourdes, Cuba.–
(1) Disapproval of credits.–The Congress expresses its strong disapproval of the extension by Russia of credits equivalent to $200,000,000 in support of the intelligence facility at Lourdes, Cuba, in November 1994.
(2) Reduction in assistance.–Section 498A of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2295a) is amended by adding at the end the following new subsection:
“(d) Reduction in Assistance for Support of Intelligence Facilities in Cuba.–
“(1) Reduction in assistance.–Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the President shall withhold
from assistance provided, on or after the date of the enactment of this subsection, for an independent
state of the former Soviet Union under this Act an amount equal to the sum of assistance and credits, if
any, provided on or after such date by such state in support of intelligence facilities in Cuba, including the
intelligence facility at Lourdes, Cuba.
“(2) Waiver.–(A) The President may waive the requirement of paragraph (1) to withhold assistance if
the President certifies to the appropriate congressional committees that the provision of such assistance is
important to the national security of the United States, and, in the case of such a certification made with
respect to Russia, if the President certifies that the Russian Government has assured the United States
Government that the Russian Government is not sharing intelligence data collected at the Lourdes facility
with officials or agents of the Cuban Government.
“(B) At the time of a certification made with respect to Russia under subparagraph (A), the President
shall also submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report describing the intelligence
activities of Russia in Cuba, including the purposes for which the Lourdes facility is used by the Russian
Government and the extent to which the Russian Government provides payment or government credits to
the Cuban Government for the continued use of the Lourdes facility.
“(C) The report required by subparagraph (B) may be submitted in classified form.
“(D) For purposes of this paragraph, the term ‘appropriate congressional committees’ includes the
Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives and the Select Committee
on Intelligence of the Senate.
“(3) Exceptions to reductions in assistance.–The requirement of paragraph (1) to withhold assistance
shall not apply with respect to–
“(A) assistance to meet urgent humanitarian needs, including disaster and refugee relief;
“(B) democratic political reform or rule of law activities;
“(C) technical assistance for safety upgrades of civilian nuclear power plants;
“(D) the creation of private sector or nongovernmental organizations that are independent of government
control;
“(E) the development of a free market economic system;
“(F) assistance under the secondary school exchange program administered by the United States
Information Agency; or
“(G) assistance for the purposes described in the Cooperative Threat Reduction Act of 1993 (title XII of
Public Law 103-160).”.
SEC. 107. TELEVISION BROADCASTING TO CUBA.
(a) Conversion to UHF.–The Director of the United States Information Agency shall implement a
conversion of television broadcasting to Cuba under the Television Marti Service to ultra high frequency
(UHF) broadcasting.
(b) Periodic Reports.–Not later than 45 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, and every three
months thereafter until the conversion described in subsection (a) is fully implemented, the Director of the
United States Information Agency shall submit a report to the appropriate congressional committees on
the progress made in carrying out subsection (a).
(c) Termination of Broadcasting Authorities.–Upon transmittal of a determination under section
203(c)(3), the Television Broadcasting to Cuba Act (22 U.S.C. 1465aa and following) and the Radio
Broadcasting to Cuba Act (22 U.S.C. 1465 and following) are repealed.
SEC. 108. REPORTS ON COMMERCE WITH, AND ASSISTANCE TO, CUBA FROM
OTHER FOREIGN COUNTRIES.
(a) Reports Required.–Not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, and by January
1 of each year thereafter until the President submits a determination under section 203(c)(1), the
President shall submit a report to the appropriate congressional committees on commerce with, and
assistance to, Cuba from other foreign countries during the preceding 12-month period.
(b) Contents of Reports.–Each report required by subsection (a) shall, for the period covered by the
report, contain the following, to the extent such information is available:
(1) A description of all bilateral assistance provided to Cuba by other foreign countries, including
humanitarian assistance.
(2) A description of Cuba’s commerce with foreign countries, including an identification of Cuba’s
trading partners and the extent of such trade.
(3) A description of the joint ventures completed, or under consideration, by foreign nationals and
business firms involving facilities in Cuba, including an identification of the location of the facilities
involved and a description of the terms of agreement of the joint ventures and the names of the parties
that are involved.
(4) A determination as to whether or not any of the facilities described in paragraph (3) is the subject of a
claim against Cuba by a United States national.
(5) A determination of the amount of debt of the Cuban Government that is owed to each foreign
country, including–
(A) the amount of debt exchanged, forgiven, or reduced under the terms of each investment or operation
in Cuba involving foreign nationals; and
(B) the amount of debt owed the foreign country that has been exchanged, forgiven, or reduced in return
for a grant by the Cuban Government of an equity interest in a property, investment, or operation of the
Cuban Government or of a Cuban national.
(6) A description of the steps taken to assure that raw materials and semifinished or finished goods
produced by facilities in Cuba involving foreign nationals do not enter the United States market, either
directly or through third countries or parties.
(7) An identification of countries that purchase, or have purchased, arms or military supplies from Cuba
or that otherwise have entered into agreements with Cuba that have a military application, including–
(A) a description of the military supplies, equipment, or other material sold, bartered, or exchanged
between Cuba and such countries,
(B) a listing of the goods, services, credits, or other consideration received by Cuba in exchange for
military supplies, equipment, or material, and
(C) the terms or conditions of any such agreement.
SEC. 109. AUTHORIZATION OF SUPPORT FOR DEMOCRATIC AND HUMAN RIGHTS
GROUPS AND INTERNATIONAL OBSERVERS.
(a) Authorization.–Notwithstanding any other provision of law (including section 102 of this Act),
except for section 634A of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2394-1) and comparable
notification requirements contained in any Act making appropriations for foreign operations, export
financing, and related programs, the President is authorized to furnish assistance and provide other
support for individuals and independent nongovernmental organizations to support democracy-building
efforts for Cuba, including the following:
(1) Published and informational matter, such as books, videos, and cassettes, on transitions to
democracy, human rights, and market economies, to be made available to independent democratic groups
in Cuba.
(2) Humanitarian assistance to victims of political repression, and their families.
(3) Support for democratic and human rights groups in Cuba.
(4) Support for visits and permanent deployment of independent international human rights monitors in
Cuba.
(b) OAS Emergency Fund.–
(1) For support of human rights and elections.–The President shall take the necessary steps to encourage
the Organization of American States to create a special emergency fund for the explicit purpose of
deploying human rights observers, election support, and election observation in Cuba.
(2) Action of other member states.–The President should instruct the United States Permanent
Representative to the Organization of American States to encourage other member states of the
Organization to join in calling for the Cuban Government to allow the immediate deployment of
independent human rights monitors of the Organization throughout Cuba and on-site visits to Cuba by the
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights.
(3) Voluntary contributions for fund.–Notwithstanding section 307 of the Foreign Assistance Act of
1961 (22 U.S.C. 2227) or any other provision of law limiting the United States proportionate share of
assistance to Cuba by any international organization, the President should provide not less than
$5,000,000 of the voluntary contributions of the United States to the Organization of American States
solely for the purposes of the special fund referred to in paragraph (1).
(c) Denial of Funds to the Cuban Government.–In implementing this section, the President shall take all
necessary steps to ensure that no funds or other assistance is provided to the Cuban Government.
SEC. 110. IMPORTATION SAFEGUARD AGAINST CERTAIN CUBAN PRODUCTS.
(a) Prohibition on Import of and Dealings in Cuban Products.–The Congress notes that section 515.204
of title 31, Code of Federal Regulations, prohibits the entry of, and dealings outside the United States in,
merchandise that–
(1) is of Cuban origin;
(2) is or has been located in or transported from or through Cuba; or
(3) is made or derived in whole or in part of any article which is the growth, produce, or manufacture of
Cuba.
(b) Effect of NAFTA.–The Congress notes that United States accession to the North American Free
Trade Agreement does not modify or alter the United States sanctions against Cuba. The statement of
administrative action accompanying that trade agreement specifically states the following:
(1) “The NAFTA rules of origin will not in any way diminish the Cuban sanctions program. . . . Nothing
in the NAFTA would operate to override this prohibition.”.
(2) “Article 309(3) [of the NAFTA] permits the United States to ensure that Cuban products or goods
made from Cuban materials are not imported into the United States from Mexico or Canada and that
United States products are not exported to Cuba through those countries.”.
(c) Restriction of Sugar Imports.–The Congress notes that section 902(c) of the Food Security Act of
1985 (Public Law 99-198) requires the President not to allocate any of the sugar import quota to a
country that is a net importer of sugar unless appropriate officials of that country verify to the President
that the country does not import for reexport to the United States any sugar produced in Cuba.
(d) Assurances Regarding Sugar Products.–Protection of essential security interests of the United States
requires assurances that sugar products that are entered, or withdrawn from warehouse for consumption,
into the customs territory of the United States are not products of Cuba.
SEC. 111. WITHHOLDING OF FOREIGN ASSISTANCE FROM COUNTRIES SUPPORTING
JURAGUA NUCLEAR PLANT IN CUBA.
(a) Findings.–The Congress makes the following findings:
(1) President Clinton stated in April 1993 that the United States opposed the construction of the Juragua
nuclear power plant because of the concerns of the United States about Cuba’s ability to ensure the safe
operation of the facility and because of Cuba’s refusal to sign the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty or
ratify the Treaty of Tlatelolco.
(2) Cuba has not signed the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons or ratified the Treaty
of Tlatelolco, the latter of which establishes Latin America and the Caribbean as a nuclear weapons-free
zone.
(3) The State Department, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and the Department of Energy have
expressed concerns about the construction and operation of Cuba’s nuclear reactors.
(4) In a September 1992 report to the Congress, the General Accounting Office outlined concerns
among nuclear energy experts about deficiencies in the nuclear plant project in Juragua, near Cienfuegos,
Cuba, including–
(A) a lack in Cuba of a nuclear regulatory structure;
(B) the absence in Cuba of an adequate infrastructure to ensure the plant’s safe operation and requisite
maintenance;
(C) the inadequacy of training of plant operators;
(D) reports by a former technician from Cuba who, by examining with x-rays weld sites believed to be
part of the auxiliary plumbing system for the plant, found that 10 to 15 percent of those sites were
defective; (E) since September 5, 1992, when construction on the plant was halted, the prolonged
exposure to the elements, including corrosive salt water vapor, of the primary reactor components; and
(F) the possible inadequacy of the upper portion of the reactors’ dome retention capability to withstand
only 7 pounds of pressure per square inch, given that normal atmospheric pressure is 32 pounds per
square inch and United States reactors are designed to accommodate pressures of 50 pounds per square
inch.
(5) The United States Geological Survey claims that it had difficulty determining answers to specific
questions regarding earthquake activity in the area near Cienfuegos because the Cuban Government was
not forthcoming with information.
(6) The Geological Survey has indicated that the Caribbean plate, a geological formation near the south
coast of Cuba, may pose seismic risks to Cuba and the site of the power plant, and may produce large to
moderate earthquakes.
(7) On May 25, 1992, the Caribbean plate produced an earthquake numbering 7.0 on the Richter scale.
(8) According to a study by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, summer winds could
carry radioactive pollutants from a nuclear accident at the power plant throughout all of Florida and parts
of the States on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico as far as Texas, and northern winds could carry the
pollutants as far northeast as Virginia and Washington, D.C.
(9) The Cuban Government, under dictator Fidel Castro, in 1962 advocated the Soviets’ launching of
nuclear missiles to the United States, which represented a direct and dangerous provocation of the United
States and brought the world to the brink of a nuclear conflict.
(10) Fidel Castro over the years has consistently issued threats against the United States Government,
most recently that he would unleash another perilous mass migration from Cuba upon the enactment of
this Act.
(11) Despite the various concerns about the plant’s safety and operational problems, a feasibility study is
being conducted that would establish a support group to include Russia, Cuba, and third countries with
the objective of completing and operating the plant.
(b) Withholding of Foreign Assistance.–
(1) In general.–Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the President shall withhold from assistance
allocated, on or after the date of the enactment of this Act, for any country an amount equal to the sum of
assistance and credits, if any, provided on or after such date of enactment by that country or any entity in
that country in support of the completion of the Cuban nuclear facility at Juragua, near Cienfuegos, Cuba.
(2) Exceptions.–The requirement of paragraph (1) to withhold assistance shall not apply with respect
to–
(A) assistance to meet urgent humanitarian needs, including disaster and refugee relief;
(B) democratic political reform or rule of law activities;
(C) the creation of private sector or nongovernmental organizations that are independent of government
control;
(D) the development of a free market economic system;
(E) assistance for the purposes described in the Cooperative Threat Reduction Act of 1993 (title XII of
Public Law 103-160); or
(F) assistance under the secondary school exchange program administered by the United States
Information Agency.
(3) Definition.–As used in paragraph (1), the term “assistance” means assistance under the Foreign
Assistance Act of 1961, credits, sales, guarantees of extensions of credit, and other assistance under the
Arms Export Control Act, assistance under titles I and III of the Agricultural Trade Development and
Assistance Act of 1954, assistance under the FREEDOM Support Act, and any other program of
assistance or credits provided by the United States to other countries under other provisions of law.

SEC. 112. REINSTITUTION OF FAMILY REMITTANCES AND TRAVEL TO CUBA.

It is the sense of the Congress that the President should–
(1)(A) before considering the reinstitution of general licenses for family remittances to Cuba, insist that, prior to such reinstitution, the Cuban Government permit the unfettered operation of small businesses fully empowered with the right to hire others to whom they may pay wages and to buy materials necessary in the operation of the businesses, and with such other authority and freedom as are required to foster the operation of small businesses throughout Cuba; and
(B) if licenses described in subparagraph (A) are reinstituted, require a specific license for remittances described in subparagraph (A) in amounts of more than $500; and
(2) before considering the reinstitution of general licenses for travel to Cuba by individuals resident in the United States who are family members of Cuban nationals who are resident in Cuba, insist on such actions by the Cuban Government as abrogation of the sanction for departure from Cuba by refugees, release of political prisoners, recognition of the right of association, and other fundamental freedoms.

SEC. 113. EXPULSION OF CRIMINALS FROM CUBA.

The President shall instruct all United States Government officials who engage in official contacts with the Cuban Government to raise on a regular basis the extradition of or rendering to the United States all persons residing in Cuba who are sought by the United States Department of Justice for crimes committed in the United States.

SEC. 114. BURÓ DE NOTICIAS EN CUBA.

 (a) Establecimiento de Oficinas de Noticias. – El Presidente está autorizado a establecer e implementar un intercambio de agencias de noticias entre los Estados Unidos y Cuba, si el intercambio cumple con las siguientes condiciones:
 (1) El intercambio es completamente recíproco.
 (2) El gobierno cubano acepta no interferir con el establecimiento de oficinas de noticias o con el movimiento en Cuba de periodistas de organizaciones noticiosas con sede en los Estados Unidos, incluidos Radio Martí y Televisión Martí.
 (3) El gobierno cubano acepta no interferir con las decisiones de las organizaciones de noticias con sede en los Estados Unidos con respecto a las personas asignadas para trabajar como periodistas en sus oficinas de noticias en Cuba.
 (4) El Departamento del Tesoro puede garantizar que solo los periodistas acreditados que trabajan regularmente en una organización de recopilación de noticias viajen a Cuba en virtud de este inciso.
 (5) El gobierno cubano acuerda no interferir con la transmisión de señales de telecomunicaciones de agencias de noticias o con la distribución dentro de Cuba de publicaciones de cualquier organización de noticias con sede en los Estados Unidos que tenga una oficina de noticias en Cuba.
 (b) Aseguramiento contra el Espionaje. Al implementar esta sección, el Presidente tomará todas las medidas necesarias para garantizar la seguridad de los Estados Unidos contra el espionaje de periodistas cubanos que crea que están trabajando para las agencias de inteligencia del gobierno cubano.
 (c) Completamente recíproco. Como se utiliza en la subsección (a) (1), el término “totalmente recíproco” significa que todos los servicios de noticias, organizaciones de noticias y servicios de radiodifusión, incluidos los servicios u organizaciones que reciben financiamiento, asistencia o otro apoyo de una fuente gubernamental u oficial, se les permite establecer y operar una oficina de noticias en los Estados Unidos y Cuba.

SEC. 114. NEWS BUREAUS IN CUBA.

(a) Establishment of News Bureaus.–The President is authorized to establish and implement an exchange of news bureaus between the United States and Cuba, if the exchange meets the following conditions:
(1) The exchange is fully reciprocal.
(2) The Cuban Government agrees not to interfere with the establishment of news bureaus or with the movement in Cuba of journalists of any United States-based news organizations, including Radio Marti and Television Marti.
(3) The Cuban Government agrees not to interfere with decisions of United States-based news organizations with respect to individuals assigned to work as journalists in their news bureaus in Cuba.
(4) The Department of the Treasury is able to ensure that only accredited journalists regularly employed with a news gathering organization travel to Cuba under this subsection.
(5) The Cuban Government agrees not to interfere with the transmission of telecommunications signals of news bureaus or with the distribution within Cuba of publications of any United States-based news organization that has a news bureau in Cuba.
(b) Assurance Against Espionage.–In implementing this section, the President shall take all necessary steps to ensure the safety and security of the United States against espionage by Cuban journalists it believes to be working for the intelligence agencies of the Cuban Government.
(c) Fully Reciprocal.–As used in subsection (a)(1), the term “fully reciprocal” means that all news services, news organizations, and broadcasting services, including such services or organizations that receive financing, assistance, or other support from a governmental or official source, are permitted to establish and operate a news bureau in the United States and Cuba.

SEC. 115. EFFECT OF ACT ON LAWFUL UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT ACTIVITIES.
Nothing in this Act prohibits any lawfully authorized investigative, protective, or intelligence activity of a law enforcement agency, or of an intelligence agency, of the United States.

SEC. 116. CONDEMNATION OF CUBAN ATTACK ON AMERICAN AIRCRAFT.
(a) Findings.–The Congress makes the following findings:
(1) Brothers to the Rescue is a Miami-based humanitarian organization engaged in searching for and
aiding Cuban refugees in the Straits of Florida, and was engaged in such a mission on Saturday, February
24, 1996.
(2) The members of Brothers to the Rescue were flying unarmed and defenseless planes in a mission
identical to hundreds they have flown since 1991 and posed no threat whatsoever to the Cuban
Government, the Cuban military, or the Cuban people.
(3) Statements by the Cuban Government that Brothers to the Rescue has engaged in covert operations,
bombing campaigns, and commando operations against the Government of Cuba have no basis in fact.
(4) The Brothers to the Rescue aircraft notified air traffic controllers as to their flight plans, which would
take them south of the 24th parallel and close to Cuban airspace.
(5) International law provides a nation with airspace over the 12- mile territorial sea.
(6) The response of Fidel Castro’s dictatorship to Saturday’s afternoon flight was to scramble 2 fighter
jets from a Havana airfield.
(7) At approximately 3:24 p.m., the pilot of one of the Cuban MiGs received permission and proceeded
to shoot down one Brothers to the Rescue airplane more than 6 miles north of the Cuban exclusion zone,
or 18 miles from the Cuban coast.
(8) Approximately 7 minutes later, the pilot of the Cuban fighter jet received permission and proceeded
to shoot down the second Brothers to the Rescue airplane almost 18.5 miles north of the Cuban exclusion
zone, or 30.5 miles from the Cuban coast.
(9) The Cuban dictatorship, if it truly felt threatened by the flight of these unarmed aircraft, could have
and should have pursued other peaceful options as required by international law.
(10) The response chosen by Fidel Castro, the use of lethal force, was completely inappropriate to the
situation presented to the Cuban Government, making such actions a blatant and barbaric violation of
international law and tantamount to cold-blooded murder.
(11) There were no survivors of the attack on these aircraft, and the crew of a third aircraft managed to
escape this criminal attack by Castro’s Air Force.
(12) The crew members of the destroyed planes, Pablo Morales, Carlos Costa, Mario de la Pena, and
Armando Alejandre, were United States citizens from Miami flying with Brothers to the Rescue on a
voluntary basis.
(13) It is incumbent upon the United States Government to protect the lives and livelihoods of United
States citizens as well as the rights of free passage and humanitarian missions.
(14) This premeditated act took place after a week-long wave of repression by the Cuban Government
against Concilio Cubano, an umbrella organization of human rights activists, dissidents, independent
economists, and independent journalists, among others.
(15) The wave of repression against Concilio Cubano, whose membership is committed to peaceful
democratic change in Cuba, included arrests, strip searches, house arrests, and in some cases sentences to
more than 1 year in jail.

(b) Statements by the Congress.–
(1) The Congress strongly condemns the act of terrorism by the Castro regime in shooting down the Brothers to the Rescue aircraft on February 24, 1996.
(2) The Congress extends its condolences to the families of Pablo Morales, Carlos Costa, Mario de la Pena, and Armando Alejandre, the victims of the attack.
(3) The Congress urges the President to seek, in the International Court of Justice, indictment for this act of terrorism by Fidel Castro.

116. CONDENA DE ATAQUE CUBANO A AERONAVES AMERICANAS
(b) Declaración del Congreso
(1) El Congreso condena enérgicamente el acto de terrorismo del régimen de Castro al derribar el avión de Hermanos al Rescate el 24 de febrero de 1996.
(2) El Congreso extiende sus condolencias a las familias de Pablo Morales, Carlos Costa, Mario de la Peña y Armando Alejandre, las víctimas del ataque.
(3) El Congreso insta al presidente a buscar, en la Corte Internacional de Justicia, una acusación por este acto de terrorismo por parte de Fidel Castro.

TÍTULO II: ASISTENCIA A UNA CUBA LIBRE E INDEPENDIENTE

SEC. 201. POLÍTICA HACIA UN GOBIERNO DE TRANSICIÓN Y UN GOBIERNO DEMOCRÁTICAMENTE ELECTO EN CUBA.

La política de los Estados Unidos es la siguiente:

(1) Apoyar la autodeterminación del pueblo cubano.
(2) Reconocer que la autodeterminación del pueblo cubano es un derecho soberano y nacional de los ciudadanos de Cuba que debe ser ejercido sin injerencias por parte del gobierno de cualquier otro país.
(3) Animar al pueblo cubano a empoderarse de un gobierno que refleje la autodeterminación del pueblo cubano.
(4) Reconocer el potencial de una difícil transición del actual régimen en Cuba que puede resultar de las iniciativas tomadas por el pueblo cubano para la autodeterminación en respuesta a la intransigencia del régimen de Castro al no permitir ninguna reforma política o económica de fondo, y estar preparados para proporcionar al pueblo cubano asistencia humanitaria, de desarrollo y otra asistencia económica.
(5) En solidaridad con el pueblo cubano, para proporcionar formas apropiadas de asistencia –
(A) a un gobierno de transición en Cuba;
(B) para facilitar el rápido movimiento de tal gobierno de transición a un gobierno democráticamente electo en Cuba que resulte de una expresión de la autodeterminación del pueblo cubano; y
(C) para apoyar a tal gobierno democráticamente electo.
(6) A través de dicha asistencia, para facilitar una transición pacífica a la democracia representativa y una economía de mercado en Cuba y para consolidar la democracia en Cuba.
(7) Para brindar dicha asistencia al pueblo cubano solo a través de un gobierno de transición en Cuba, a través de un gobierno electo democráticamente en Cuba, a través de organizaciones gubernamentales de los Estados Unidos, a través de organizaciones no-gubernamentales de Estados Unidos, internacionales o indígenas.
(8) Alentar a otros países y organizaciones multilaterales a brindar asistencia similar, y a trabajar en cooperación con dichos países y organizaciones para coordinar dicha asistencia.
(9) Asegurar que la asistencia adecuada se proporcione y distribuya rápidamente al pueblo de Cuba en la instalación de un gobierno de transición en Cuba.
(10) No proporcionar tratamiento o influencia favorable en favor de ningún individuo o entidad en la elección de su futuro gobierno por parte del pueblo cubano .
(11) Para ayudar a un gobierno de transición en Cuba y a un gobierno elegido democráticamente en Cuba a preparar a las fuerzas militares cubanas para un papel apropiado en una democracia.
(12) Estar preparado para iniciar negociaciones con un gobierno elegido democráticamente en Cuba, ya sea para devolver la Base Naval de los Estados Unidos en Guantánamo a Cuba o para renegociar el presente acuerdo bajo términos mutuamente aceptables.
(13) Considerar la restauración del reconocimiento diplomático y apoyar la reintegración del gobierno cubano en las organizaciones interamericanas cuando el presidente determine que existe un gobierno democráticamente electo en Cuba.
(14) Tomar medidas para eliminar el bloqueo económico a Cuba cuando el Presidente determina que ha comenzado la transición a un gobierno democráticamente electo en Cuba.
(15) Para ayudar a un gobierno democráticamente electo en Cuba a fortalecer y estabilizar su moneda nacional.
(16) Buscar relaciones comerciales con una Cuba libre, democrática e independiente.

SEC. 202. ASSISTANCE FOR THE CUBAN PEOPLE.

(a) Authorization.–
(1) In general.–The President shall develop a plan for providing economic assistance to Cuba at such time as the President determines that a transition government or a democratically elected government in Cuba (as determined under section 203(c)) is in power.
(2) Effect on other laws.–Assistance may be provided under this section subject to an authorization of appropriations and subject to the availability of appropriations.
(b) Plan for Assistance.–
(1) Development of plan.–The President shall develop a plan for providing assistance under this section–
(A) to Cuba when a transition government in Cuba is in power; and
(B) to Cuba when a democratically elected government in Cuba is in power.
(2) Types of assistance.–Assistance under the plan developed under paragraph (1) may, subject to an authorization of appropriations and subject to the availability of appropriations, include the following:
(A) Transition government.–(i) Except as provided in clause (ii), assistance to Cuba under a transition government shall, subject to an authorization of appropriations and subject to the availability of appropriations, be limited to–
(I) such food, medicine, medical supplies and equipment, and assistance to meet emergency energy needs, as is necessary to meet the basic human needs of the Cuban people; and
(II) assistance described in subparagraph (C).
(ii) Assistance in addition to assistance under clause (i) may be provided, but only after the President certifies to the appropriate congressional committees, in accordance with procedures applicable to reprogramming notifications under section 634A of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, that such assistance is essential to the successful completion of the transition to democracy.
(iii) Only after a transition government in Cuba is in power, freedom of individuals to travel to visit their relatives without any restrictions shall be permitted.
(B) Democratically elected government.–Assistance to a democratically elected government in Cuba may, subject to an authorization of appropriations and subject to the availability of appropriations, consist of economic assistance in addition to assistance available under subparagraph (A), together with assistance described in subparagraph (C). Such economic assistance may include–
(i) assistance under chapter 1 of part I (relating to development assistance), and chapter 4 of part II (relating to the economic support fund), of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961;
(ii) assistance under the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954;
(iii) financing, guarantees, and other forms of assistance provided by the Export-Import Bank of the United States;
(iv) financial support provided by the Overseas Private Investment Corporation for investment projects in Cuba;
(v) assistance provided by the Trade and Development Agency;
(vi) Peace Corps programs; and
(vii) other appropriate assistance to carry out the policy of section 201.
(C) Military adjustment assistance.–Assistance to a transition government in Cuba and to a democratically elected government in Cuba shall also include assistance in preparing the Cuban military forces to adjust to an appropriate role in a democracy.
(c) Strategy for Distribution.–The plan developed under subsection (b) shall include a strategy for distributing assistance under the plan.
(d) Distribution.–Assistance under the plan developed under subsection (b) shall be provided through United States Government organizations and nongovernmental organizations and private and voluntary organizations, whether within or outside the United States, including humanitarian, educational, labor, and private sector organizations.
(e) International Efforts.–The President shall take the necessary steps–
(1) to seek to obtain the agreement of other countries and of international financial institutions and multilateral organizations to provide to a transition government in Cuba, and to a democratically elected government in Cuba, assistance comparable to that provided by the United States under this Act; and
(2) to work with such countries, institutions, and organizations to coordinate all such assistance programs.
(f) Communication With the Cuban People.–The President shall take the necessary steps to communicate to the Cuban people the plan for assistance developed under this section.
(g) Report to Congress.–Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the President shall transmit to the appropriate congressional committees a report describing in detail the plan developed under this section.
(h) Report on Trade and Investment Relations.–
(1) Report to congress.–The President, following the transmittal to the Congress of a determination under section 203(c)(3) that a democratically elected government in Cuba is in power, shall submit to the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Finance of the Senate and the appropriate congressional committees a report that describes-
(A) acts, policies, and practices which constitute significant barriers to, or distortions of, United States trade in goods or services or foreign direct investment with respect to Cuba;
(B) policy objectives of the United States regarding trade relations with a democratically elected government in Cuba, and the reasons therefor, including possible–
(i) reciprocal extension of nondiscriminatory trade treatment (most-favored-nation treatment);
(ii) designation of Cuba as a beneficiary developing country under title V of the Trade Act of 1974 (relating to the Generalized System of Preferences) or as a beneficiary country under the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act, and the implications of such designation with respect to trade with any other country that is such a beneficiary developing country or beneficiary country or is a party to the North American Free Trade Agreement; and
(iii) negotiations regarding free trade, including the accession of Cuba to the North American Free Trade Agreement;
(C) specific trade negotiating objectives of the United States with respect to Cuba, including the objectives described in section 108(b)(5) of the North American Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act (19 U.S.C. 3317(b)(5)); and
(D) actions proposed or anticipated to be undertaken, and any proposed legislation necessary or appropriate, to achieve any of such policy and negotiating objectives.
(2) Consultation.–The President shall consult with the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Finance of the Senate and the appropriate congressional committees and shall seek advice from the appropriate advisory committees established under section 135 of the Trade Act of 1974 regarding the policy and negotiating objectives and the legislative proposals described in paragraph (1).

SEC. 203. COORDINATION OF ASSISTANCE PROGRAM; IMPLEMENTATION AND REPORTS TO CONGRESS; REPROGRAMMING.

(a) Coordinating Official.–The President shall designate a coordinating official who shall be responsible
for–
(1) implementing the strategy for distributing assistance described in section 202(b);
(2) ensuring the speedy and efficient distribution of such assistance; and
(3) ensuring coordination among, and appropriate oversight by, the agencies of the United States that
provide assistance described in section 202(b), including resolving any disputes among such agencies.
(b) United States-Cuba Council.–Upon making a determination under subsection (c)(3) that a
democratically elected government in Cuba is in power, the President, after consultation with the
coordinating official, is authorized to designate a United States-Cuba council–
(1) to ensure coordination between the United States Government and the private sector in responding
to change in Cuba, and in promoting market-based development in Cuba; and
(2) to establish periodic meetings between representatives of the United States and Cuban private sectors
for the purpose of facilitating bilateral trade.
(c) Implementation of Plan; Reports to Congress.–
(1) Implementation with respect to transition government.–Upon making a determination that a
transition government in Cuba is in power, the President shall transmit that determination to the
appropriate congressional committees and shall, subject to an authorization of appropriations and subject
to the availability of appropriations, commence the delivery and distribution of assistance to such
transition government under the plan developed under section 202(b).
(2) Reports to congress.–(A) The President shall transmit to the appropriate congressional committees a
report setting forth the strategy for providing assistance described in section 202(b)(2) (A) and (C) to the
transition government in Cuba under the plan of assistance developed under section 202(b), the types of
such assistance, and the extent to which such assistance has been distributed in accordance with the plan.
(B) The President shall transmit the report not later than 90 days after making the determination referred
to in paragraph (1), except that the President shall transmit the report in preliminary form not later than
15 days after making that determination.
(3) Implementation with respect to democratically elected government.–The President shall, upon
determining that a democratically elected government in Cuba is in power, submit that determination to
the appropriate congressional committees and shall, subject to an authorization of appropriations and
subject to the availability of appropriations, commence the delivery and distribution of assistance to such
democratically elected government under the plan developed under section 202(b).
(4) Annual reports to congress.–Not later than 60 days after the end of each fiscal year, the President
shall transmit to the appropriate congressional committees a report on the assistance provided under the
plan developed under section 202(b), including a description of each type of assistance, the amounts
expended for such assistance, and a description of the assistance to be provided under the plan in the
current fiscal year.
(d) Reprogramming.–Any changes in the assistance to be provided under the plan developed under
section 202(b) may not be made unless the President notifies the appropriate congressional committees at
least 15 days in advance in accordance with the procedures applicable to reprogramming notifications
under section 634A of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2394-1).
SEC. 204. TERMINATION OF THE ECONOMIC EMBARGO OF CUBA.
(a) Presidential Actions.–Upon submitting a determination to the appropriate congressional
committees under section 203(c)(1) that a transition government in Cuba is in power, the
President, after consultation with the Congress, is authorized to take steps to suspend the
economic embargo of Cuba and to suspend the right of action created in section 302 with respect
to actions thereafter filed against the Cuban Government, to the extent that such steps contribute
to a stable foundation for a democratically elected government in Cuba.
(b) Suspension of Certain Provisions of Law.–In carrying out subsection (a), the President may
suspend the enforcement of–
(1) section 620(a) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2370(a));
(2) section 620(f) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2370(f)) with respect to the
“Republic of Cuba”;
(3) sections 1704, 1705(d), and 1706 of the Cuban Democracy Act of 1992 (22 U.S.C. 6003,
6004(d), and 6005);
(4) section 902(c) of the Food Security Act of 1985; and
(5) the prohibitions on transactions described in part 515 of title 31, Code of Federal Regulations.
(c) Additional Presidential Actions.–Upon submitting a determination to the appropriate
congressional committees under section 203(c)(3) that a democratically elected government in
Cuba is in power, the President shall take steps to terminate the economic embargo of Cuba,
including the restrictions under part 515 of title 31, Code of Federal Regulations.
(d) Conforming Amendments.–On the date on which the President submits a determination
under section 203(c)(3)–
(1) section 620(a) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2370(a)) is repealed;
(2) section 620(f) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2370(f)) is amended by striking
“Republic of Cuba”;
(3) sections 1704, 1705(d), and 1706 of the Cuban Democracy Act of 1992 (22 U.S.C. 6003,
6004(d), and 6005) are repealed; and
(4) section 902(c) of the Food Security Act of 1985 is repealed.
(e) Review of Suspension of Economic Embargo.–
(1) Review.–If the President takes action under subsection (a) to suspend the economic embargo
of Cuba, the President shall immediately so notify the Congress. The President shall report to the
Congress no less frequently than every 6 months thereafter, until he submits a determination
under section 203(c)(3) that a democratically elected government in Cuba is in power, on the
progress being made by Cuba toward the establishment of such a democratically elected
government. The action of the President under subsection (a) shall cease to be effective upon the
enactment of a joint resolution described in paragraph (2).
(2) Joint resolutions.–For purposes of this subsection, the term “joint resolution” means only a
joint resolution of the 2 Houses of Congress, the matter after the resolving clause of which is as
follows: “That the Congress disapproves the action of the President under section 204(a) of the
Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity (LIBERTAD) Act of 1996 to suspend the economic
embargo of Cuba, notice of which was submitted to the Congress on __.”, with the blank space
being filled with the appropriate date.
(3) Referral to committees.–Joint resolutions introduced in the House of Representatives shall be
referred to the Committee on International Relations and joint resolutions introduced in the
Senate shall be referred to the Committee on Foreign Relations.
(4) Procedures.–(A) Any joint resolution shall be considered in the Senate in accordance with the
provisions of section 601(b) of the International Security Assistance and Arms Export Control Act
of 1976.
(B) For the purpose of expediting the consideration and enactment of joint resolutions, a motion
to proceed to the consideration of any joint resolution after it has been reported by the
appropriate committee shall be treated as highly privileged in the House of Representatives.
(C) Not more than 1 joint resolution may be considered in the House of Representatives and the
Senate in the 6-month period beginning on the date on which the President notifies the Congress
under paragraph (1) of the action taken under subsection (a), and in each 6-month period
thereafter.
SEC. 205. REQUIREMENTS AND FACTORS FOR DETERMINING A TRANSITION
GOVERNMENT.
(a) Requirements.–For the purposes of this Act, a transition government in Cuba is a government
that–
(1) has legalized all political activity;
(2) has released all political prisoners and allowed for investigations of Cuban prisons by
appropriate international human rights organizations;
(3) has dissolved the present Department of State Security in the Cuban Ministry of the Interior,
including the Committees for the Defense of the Revolution and the Rapid Response Brigades;
and
(4) has made public commitments to organizing free and fair elections for a new government–
(A) to be held in a timely manner within a period not to exceed 18 months after the transition
government assumes power;
(B) with the participation of multiple independent political parties that have full access to the
media on an equal basis, including (in the case of radio, television, or other telecommunications
media) in terms of allotments of time for such access and the times of day such allotments are
given; and
(C) to be conducted under the supervision of internationally recognized observers, such as the
Organization of American States, the United Nations, and other election monitors;
(5) has ceased any interference with Radio Marti or Television Marti broadcasts;
(6) makes public commitments to and is making demonstrable progress in–
(A) establishing an independent judiciary;
(B) respecting internationally recognized human rights and basic freedoms as set forth in the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, to which Cuba is a signatory nation;
(C) allowing the establishment of independent trade unions as set forth in conventions 87 and 98
of the International Labor Organization, and allowing the establishment of independent social,
economic, and political associations;
(7) does not include Fidel Castro or Raul Castro; and
(8) has given adequate assurances that it will allow the speedy and efficient distribution of
assistance to the Cuban people.
(b) Additional Factors.–In addition to the requirements in subsection (a), in determining whether
a transition government in Cuba is in power, the President shall take into account the extent to
which that government–
(1) is demonstrably in transition from a communist totalitarian dictatorship to representative
democracy;
(2) has made public commitments to, and is making demonstrable progress in–
(A) effectively guaranteeing the rights of free speech and freedom of the press, including granting
permits to privately owned media and telecommunications companies to operate in Cuba;
(B) permitting the reinstatement of citizenship to Cuban-born persons returning to Cuba;
(C) assuring the right to private property; and
(D) taking appropriate steps to return to United States citizens (and entities which are 50 percent
or more beneficially owned by United States citizens) property taken by the Cuban Government
from such citizens and entities on or after January 1, 1959, or to provide equitable compensation
to such citizens and entities for such property;
(3) has extradited or otherwise rendered to the United States all persons sought by the United
States Department of Justice for crimes committed in the United States; and
(4) has permitted the deployment throughout Cuba of independent and unfettered international
human rights monitors.
SEC. 206. REQUIREMENTS FOR DETERMINING A DEMOCRATICALLY ELECTED
GOVERNMENT.
For purposes of this Act, a democratically elected government in Cuba, in addition to meeting the
requirements of section 205(a), is a government which–
(1) results from free and fair elections–
(A) conducted under the supervision of internationally recognized observers; and
(B) in which–
(i) opposition parties were permitted ample time to organize and campaign for such elections; and
(ii) all candidates were permitted full access to the media;
(2) is showing respect for the basic civil liberties and human rights of the citizens of Cuba;
(3) is substantially moving toward a market-oriented economic system based on the right to own
and enjoy property;
(4) is committed to making constitutional changes that would ensure regular free and fair
elections and the full enjoyment of basic civil liberties and human rights by the citizens of Cuba;
(5) has made demonstrable progress in establishing an independent judiciary; and
(6) has made demonstrable progress in returning to United States citizens (and entities which are
50 percent or more beneficially owned by United States citizens) property taken by the Cuban
Government from such citizens and entities on or after January 1, 1959, or providing full
compensation for such property in accordance with international law standards and practice.
SEC. 207. SETTLEMENT OF OUTSTANDING UNITED STATES CLAIMS TO
CONFISCATED PROPERTY IN CUBA.
(a) Report to Congress.–Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the
Secretary of State shall provide a report to the appropriate congressional committees containing
an assessment of the property dispute question in Cuba, including–
(1) an estimate of the number and amount of claims to property confiscated by the Cuban
Government that are held by United States nationals in addition to those claims certified under
section 507 of the International Claims Settlement Act of 1949;
(2) an assessment of the significance of promptly resolving confiscated property claims to the
revitalization of the Cuban economy;
(3) a review and evaluation of technical and other assistance that the United States could provide
to help either a transition government in Cuba or a democratically elected government in Cuba
establish mechanisms to resolve property questions;
(4) an assessment of the role and types of support the United States could provide to help resolve
claims to property confiscated by the Cuban Government that are held by United States nationals
who did not receive or qualify for certification under section 507 of the International Claims
Settlement Act of 1949; and
(5) an assessment of any areas requiring legislative review or action regarding the resolution of
property claims in Cuba prior to a change of government in Cuba.
(d) Sense of Congress.–It is the sense of the Congress that the satisfactory resolution of property
claims by a Cuban Government recognized by the United States remains an essential condition for
the full resumption of economic and diplomatic relations between the United States and Cuba.

TÍTULO III – PROTECCIÓN DE LOS DERECHOS DE PROPIEDAD DE LOS NACIONALES DE LOS ESTADOS UNIDOS

 SEC. 301. RESULTADOS.

 El congreso hace las siguientes conclusiones:
 (1) Los individuos disfrutan de un derecho fundamental a poseer y disfrutar de una propiedad que está consagrada en la Constitución de los Estados Unidos.
 (2) La confiscación ilícita o la toma de propiedad de ciudadanos de los Estados Unidos por parte del gobierno cubano, y la posterior explotación de esta propiedad a costa del propietario legítimo, socava la comunidad de naciones, el libre flujo de comercio y el desarrollo económico. .
 (3) Desde que Fidel Castro tomó el poder en Cuba en 1959:
 (A) ha pisoteado los derechos fundamentales del pueblo cubano; y
 (B) a través de su despotismo personal, ha confiscado la propiedad de–
 (i) millones de sus propios ciudadanos;
 (ii) miles de nacionales de los Estados Unidos; y
 (iii) miles de cubanos más que reclamaron asilo en los Estados Unidos como refugiados debido a la persecución y luego se convirtieron en ciudadanos naturalizados de los Estados Unidos.
 (4) Es en interés del pueblo cubano que el gobierno cubano respete por igual los derechos de propiedad de los ciudadanos cubanos y de otros países.
 (5) El gobierno cubano está ofreciendo a los inversionistas extranjeros la oportunidad de comprar una participación accionaria, administrar o establecer empresas conjuntas utilizando propiedades y activos, algunos de los cuales fueron confiscados a ciudadanos de los Estados Unidos.
 (6) Este “tráfico” en propiedades confiscadas proporciona un beneficio financiero muy necesario, incluida la moneda fuerte, el petróleo, la inversión y la experiencia productiva, al actual gobierno cubano y, por lo tanto, socava la política exterior de los Estados Unidos:
 (A) llevar las instituciones democráticas a Cuba a través de la presión de un embargo económico general en un momento en que el régimen de Castro ha demostrado ser vulnerable a la presión económica internacional;
y
 (B) para proteger las reclamaciones de los ciudadanos de los Estados Unidos que tenían propiedades confiscadas por el gobierno cubano.
 (7) El Departamento de Estado de los Estados Unidos ha notificado a otros gobiernos que la transferencia a terceros de propiedades confiscadas por el Gobierno cubano “complicaría cualquier intento de devolverlos a sus propietarios originales”.
 (8) El sistema judicial internacional, tal como está estructurado actualmente, carece de recursos totalmente efectivos para la confiscación ilícita de la propiedad y para el enriquecimiento injusto del uso de la propiedad confiscada por error por los gobiernos y entidades privadas a expensas de los legítimos propietarios de la propiedad.
 (9) El derecho internacional reconoce que una nación tiene la capacidad de establecer normas de derecho con respecto a conductas fuera de su territorio que tienen o se pretende que tengan un efecto sustancial dentro de su territorio.
 (10) El gobierno de los Estados Unidos tiene la obligación de que sus ciudadanos proporcionen protección contra confiscaciones injustas por parte de naciones extranjeras y sus ciudadanos, incluida la provisión de recursos privados.
 (11) Para disuadir el tráfico de bienes confiscados erróneamente, los ciudadanos de los Estados Unidos que fueron víctimas de estos decomisos deberían contar con un recurso judicial en los tribunales de los Estados Unidos que negaría a los traficantes cualquier beneficio de la explotación económica de las incautaciones ilegales de Castro.

 SEC. 302. RESPONSABILIDAD POR TRÁFICO EN PROPIEDADES CONFISCADAS RECLAMADAS POR NACIONALES DE LOS ESTADOS UNIDOS.

 (a) Remedio Civil .–
 (1) Responsabilidad por el tráfico .– (A) Salvo que se disponga lo contrario en esta sección, cualquier persona que, después del final del período de 3 meses que comienza en la fecha de vigencia de este título, realice un tráfico de bienes que fue confiscado por el El gobierno cubano a partir del 1 de enero de 1959, será responsable ante cualquier ciudadano de los Estados Unidos que posea la reclamación de dichos bienes por daños monetarios por un monto igual a la suma de:
 (i) la cantidad que sea mayor de–
 (I) el monto, si lo hubiera, certificado al reclamante por la Comisión de Liquidación de Reclamaciones Extranjeras conforme a la Ley de Resolución de Reclamaciones Internacionales de 1949, más los intereses;
 (II) la cantidad determinada según la sección 303 (a) (2), más los intereses; o
 (III) el valor justo de mercado de esa propiedad, calculado como el valor actual de la propiedad o el valor de la propiedad cuando se confiscó más el interés, el que sea mayor; y
 (ii) Costos judiciales y honorarios razonables de abogados.
 (B) Los intereses según el subpárrafo (A) (i) serán a la tasa establecida en la sección 1961 del título 28, Código de los Estados Unidos, computada por el tribunal desde la fecha de confiscación de la propiedad en cuestión hasta la fecha en que la acción es traído bajo esta subsección.
 (2) Presunción a favor de las reclamaciones certificadas .– Se presumirá que la cantidad por la cual una persona es responsable según la cláusula (i) del párrafo (1) (A) es la cantidad que se certifica como se describe en la subcláusula (I) de esa cláusula. La presunción será refutable mediante evidencia clara y convincente de que la cantidad descrita en la subcláusula (II) o (III) de esa cláusula es la cantidad apropiada de responsabilidad bajo esa cláusula.

(3) Mayor responsabilidad .– (A) Cualquier persona que trafica en bienes confiscados por los cuales incurre en responsabilidad conforme al párrafo (1) deberá, si un nacional de los Estados Unidos posee una reclamación con respecto a esa propiedad que fue certificada por los Reclamos Extranjeros La Comisión de Liquidación bajo el título V de la Ley de Liquidación de Reclamos Internacionales de 1949, será responsable de los daños computados de acuerdo con el subpárrafo (C).
 (B) Si el reclamante en una acción bajo esta subsección (que no sea un nacional de los Estados Unidos a quien se aplica el subpárrafo (A)) proporciona, después del final del período de 3 meses descrito en
párrafo (1) aviso a–
 (i) una persona contra quien se iniciará la acción, o
 (ii) una persona que debe unirse como acusado en la acción, al menos 30 días antes de iniciar la acción o unirse a dicha persona como acusado, según sea el caso, y esa persona, después del final del 30- En el período de un día que comienza en la fecha en que se proporciona la notificación, los tráficos en la propiedad confiscada que es el sujeto de la acción, esa persona será responsable ante el reclamante por los daños computados de acuerdo con el subpárrafo (C).
 (C) Los daños por los cuales una persona es responsable según el subpárrafo (A) o el subpárrafo (B) son daños monetarios en una cantidad igual a la suma de:
 (i) la cantidad determinada según el párrafo (1) (A) (ii), y
 (ii) 3 veces la cantidad determinada aplicable según el párrafo (1) (A) (i).
 (D) Aviso a una persona bajo el subpárrafo (B) –
 (i) se hará por escrito;
 (ii) se publicará por correo certificado o se entregará personalmente a la persona; y
 (iii) contendrá–
 (I) una declaración de intención para comenzar la acción conforme a esta sección o para unirse a la persona como acusado (según sea el caso), junto con las razones para ello;
 (II) una demanda para que el tráfico ilícito en la propiedad del reclamante cese inmediatamente; y
 (III) una copia de la declaración resumida publicada en virtud del párrafo (8).
 (4) Aplicabilidad .– (A) Salvo que se disponga lo contrario en este párrafo, se pueden entablar acciones conforme al párrafo (1) con respecto a los bienes confiscados antes, en o después de la fecha de promulgación de esta Ley.
 (B) En el caso de propiedad confiscada antes de la fecha de la promulgación de esta Ley, un nacional de los Estados Unidos no puede presentar una acción en esta sección sobre una reclamación de la propiedad confiscada a menos que dicho nacional adquiera la propiedad de la reclamación antes de dicha fecha de promulgación.
 (C) En el caso de una propiedad confiscada en o después de la fecha de la promulgación de esta Ley, un ciudadano de los Estados Unidos que, después de que la propiedad sea confiscada, adquiera la propiedad de una reclamación de la propiedad por cesión por valor, no puede Acción sobre el reclamo bajo esta sección.
 (5) Tratamiento de ciertas acciones .– (A) En el caso de un nacional de los Estados Unidos que fue elegible para presentar una reclamación ante la Comisión de Liquidación de Reclamaciones Extranjeras de conformidad con el título V de la Ley de Liquidación de Reclamaciones Internacionales de 1949, pero no lo hizo. la reclamación, ese nacional de los Estados Unidos no puede iniciar una acción sobre esa reclamación conforme a esta sección.
 (B) En el caso de cualquier acción presentada en virtud de esta sección por un nacional de los Estados Unidos cuya reclamación subyacente en la acción se presentó oportunamente ante la Comisión de Liquidación de Reclamaciones Extranjeras de conformidad con el título V de la Ley de Liquidación de Reclamaciones Internacionales de 1949, pero la Comisión la denegó , el tribunal aceptará las conclusiones de la Comisión sobre la demanda como concluyentes en la acción bajo esta sección.
 (C) Un nacional de los Estados Unidos, que no sea un nacional de los Estados Unidos que interponga una acción en virtud de esta sección por una reclamación certificada según el Título V de la Ley de resolución de reclamaciones internacionales de 1949, no puede presentar una acción por una reclamación en virtud de esta sección antes de su finalización. del período de 2 años que comienza en la fecha de la promulgación de esta Ley.
 (D) Un interés en bienes para los cuales un nacional de los Estados Unidos tiene una reclamación certificada según el título V de la Ley de resolución de reclamaciones internacionales de 1949 no puede ser objeto de una reclamación en una acción bajo esta sección por parte de otra persona. Cualquier persona que presente una acción bajo esta sección cuya reclamación no ha sido certificada tendrá la responsabilidad de establecer ante el tribunal que el interés en la propiedad que es el sujeto de la reclamación no es el sujeto de una reclamación así certificada.
 (6) Inaplicabilidad del acto de la doctrina estatal. Ningún tribunal de los Estados Unidos rechazará, basándose en el acto de la doctrina estatal, tomar una determinación sobre el fondo en una acción presentada en virtud del párrafo (1).
 (7) No se requieren licencias .– (A) A pesar de cualquier otra disposición de la ley, una acción bajo esta sección puede ser presentada y puede ser resuelta, y una sentencia dictada en dicha acción puede ser ejecutada, sin obtener ninguna licencia u otro permiso de cualquier agencia de los Estados Unidos, excepto que este párrafo no se aplicará a la ejecución de una sentencia en contra de, o al establecimiento de acciones que involucren, propiedades bloqueadas por las autoridades de la sección 5 (b) de la Ley de Comercio con Enemigos que fueron ejerciéndose el 1 de julio de 1977, como resultado de una emergencia nacional declarada por el Presidente antes de dicha fecha, y se está ejerciendo en la fecha de la promulgación de esta Ley.
 (B) No obstante cualquier otra disposición de la ley, y solo para los fines de este título, cualquier reclamación contra el Gobierno cubano no se considerará como un interés en bienes cuya transferencia a un nacional de los Estados Unidos se requiere antes de la promulgación de esta Ley. , o requiere después de la promulgación de esta Ley, una licencia emitida por, o el permiso de, cualquier agencia de los Estados Unidos.
 (8) Publicación por el fiscal general .– A más tardar 60 días después de la fecha de la promulgación de esta Ley, el Fiscal General preparará y publicará en el Registro Federal un resumen conciso de las disposiciones de este título, incluida una declaración de la responsabilidad bajo este título de una persona que trata con bienes confiscados, y los recursos disponibles para los ciudadanos de los Estados Unidos bajo este título.
 (b) Monto en controversia .– Un ciudadano de los Estados Unidos puede presentar una acción conforme a esta sección solo cuando el monto en controversia exceda la suma o el valor de $ 50,000, sin incluir intereses, costos ni honorarios de abogados. Al calcular $ 50,000 a los fines de la oración precedente, el monto aplicable en la subcláusula (I), (II) o (III) de la subsección (a) (1) (A) (i) no puede triplicarse según lo dispuesto en la subsección ( a) (3).
 (c) Requisitos de procedimiento .–
 (1) En general .– Excepto lo dispuesto en este título, las disposiciones del título 28, el Código de los Estados Unidos y las reglas de los tribunales de los Estados Unidos se aplican a las acciones de esta sección en la misma medida que dichas disposiciones y reglas. se aplica a cualquier otra acción presentada bajo la sección 1331 del título 28 del Código de los Estados Unidos.
 (2) Servicio del proceso .– En una acción bajo esta sección, el servicio del proceso en una agencia o agencia de un estado extranjero en la realización de una actividad comercial, o contra individuos que actúan bajo el color de la ley, se hará de acuerdo con con la sección 1608 del título 28, Código de los Estados Unidos.
 (d) Cumplimiento de sentencias contra el gobierno cubano .– En una acción presentada en esta sección, cualquier sentencia contra una agencia o un instrumento del gobierno cubano no será ejecutable contra una agencia o un instrumento de gobierno de transición en Cuba o democráticamente Gobierno electo en cuba.
 (e) Ciertos bienes inmunes a la ejecución .– La sección 1611 del título 28, Código de los Estados Unidos, se modifica agregando al final la siguiente subsección nueva:
 “(c) No obstante lo dispuesto en la sección 1610 de este capítulo, la propiedad de un estado extranjero será inmune al embargo y la ejecución en una acción presentada en virtud de la sección 302 de la Ley de Libertad y Solidaridad Democrática de Cuba (LIBERTAD) de 1996 a en la medida en que la propiedad sea una instalación o instalación utilizada por una misión diplomática acreditada para fines oficiales “.
 (f) Elección de recursos .–
 (1) Elección .– Sujeto al párrafo (2) –
 (A) cualquier ciudadano de los Estados Unidos que inicie una acción en virtud de esta sección no puede iniciar ninguna otra acción civil o procedimiento en virtud de la ley común, la ley federal o la ley de cualquiera de los varios estados, el Distrito de Columbia o cualquier mancomunidad, territorio, o posesión de los Estados Unidos, que busca una compensación monetaria o no monetaria por la misma materia;
y
 (B) cualquier persona que presente, conforme al derecho consuetudinario o cualquier disposición de la ley que no sea esta sección, una acción civil o un procedimiento de compensación monetaria o no monetaria que surja de una reclamación por la cual una acción sería reconocible en virtud de esta sección, no puede presentar una acción en esta sección sobre esa reclamación.
 (2) Tratamiento de reclamantes certificados .– (A) En el caso de cualquier ciudadano de los Estados Unidos que presente una acción bajo esta sección basada en un reclamo certificado bajo el título V de la Ley de liquidación de reclamaciones internacionales de 1949–
 (i) si la recuperación en la acción es igual o mayor que el monto de la reclamación certificada, el nacional de los Estados Unidos no puede recibir el pago de la reclamación en virtud de ningún acuerdo celebrado entre los Estados Unidos y Cuba que resuelva las reclamaciones cubiertas por dicho título , y se considerará que dicho nacional ha liberado a los Estados Unidos de cualquier responsabilidad adicional para representar al nacional de los Estados Unidos con respecto a esa reclamación;
 (ii) si la recuperación de la acción es menor que el monto de la reclamación certificada, el nacional de los Estados Unidos puede recibir un pago conforme a un acuerdo de reclamaciones descrito en la cláusula (i), pero solo en la medida de la diferencia entre la cantidad de la recuperación y el monto de la reclamación certificada;
y
 (iii) si no hay recuperación en la acción, el nacional de los Estados Unidos puede recibir el pago de la reclamación certificada en virtud de un acuerdo de reclamaciones descrito en la cláusula (i) en la misma medida que cualquier reclamante certificado que no presente una acción según esta sección .

(B) En el caso de que algunas o todas las acciones presentadas en virtud de esta sección se consoliden mediante acciones judiciales o de otro tipo, de manera tal que se cree un conjunto de activos disponibles para satisfacer las reclamaciones en dichas acciones, incluido un conjunto de activos en un procedimiento en quiebra , todo reclamante cuya reclamación en una acción así consolidada fue certificada por la Comisión de Liquidación de Reclamaciones Extranjeras conforme al título V de la Ley de Liquidación de Reclamaciones Internacionales de 1949 tendrá derecho al pago total de su reclamación de los activos en tal grupo antes de que se realice el pago de los activos en dicho grupo con respecto a cualquier reclamación no certificada.
 (g) Depósito de pagos en exceso por parte de Cuba en virtud del Acuerdo de reclamaciones .– Cualquier monto pagado por Cuba en virtud de cualquier acuerdo celebrado entre los Estados Unidos y Cuba que resuelva las reclamaciones certificadas según el Título V de la Ley de liquidación de reclamaciones internacionales de 1949 que excedan los pagos realizados en dichas reclamaciones certificadas después de la aplicación de la subsección (f) se depositarán en el Tesoro de los Estados Unidos.
 (h) Terminación de derechos .–
 (1) En general .– Todos los derechos creados en virtud de esta sección para iniciar una acción por daños monetarios con respecto a bienes confiscados por el gobierno cubano–
 (A) puede ser suspendido bajo la sección 204 (a); y
 (B) cesará tras la transmisión al Congreso de una determinación del Presidente según la sección 203 (c) (3) de que un gobierno elegido democráticamente en Cuba está en el poder.
 (2) Demandas pendientes .– La suspensión o terminación de los derechos en virtud del párrafo (1) no afectará a las demandas iniciadas antes de la fecha de dicha suspensión o terminación (según sea el caso), y en todas las demandas, los procedimientos se llevarán a cabo. , las apelaciones y los juicios emitidos de la misma manera y con el mismo efecto que si no hubiera ocurrido la suspensión o terminación.
 (i) Imposición de tarifas de presentación .– La Conferencia Judicial de los Estados Unidos establecerá una tarifa uniforme que se impondrá al demandante o demandantes en cada acción presentada en esta sección. La tarifa debe establecerse a un nivel suficiente para recuperar los costos para los tribunales de las acciones presentadas en esta sección. La tarifa bajo esta subsección es adicional a cualquier otra tarifa impuesta bajo el título 28, Código de los Estados Unidos.

SEC. 303. PRUEBA DE PROPIEDAD DE RECLAMACIONES A PROPIEDADES CONFISCADAS.

 (a) Evidencia de propiedad .–
 (1) Conclusión de las reclamaciones certificadas .– En cualquier acción presentada bajo este título, el tribunal aceptará como prueba concluyente de la propiedad de un interés en la propiedad una certificación de una reclamación de la propiedad de ese interés que haya sido hecha por las Reclamaciones en el extranjero Comisión de Liquidación bajo el título V de la Ley de Liquidación de Reclamos Internacionales de 1949 (22 USC 1643 y siguientes).
 (2) Reclamaciones no certificadas .– Si en una acción bajo este título, una reclamación no ha sido certificada por la Comisión de Liquidación de Reclamaciones Extranjeras, el tribunal puede designar a un capitán especial, incluida la Comisión de Liquidación de Reclamaciones Extranjeras, para hacer determinaciones con respecto a Importe y titularidad de la reclamación. Tales determinaciones son solo para fines probatorios en acciones civiles.
bajo este título y no constituyen certificaciones bajo el título V de la Ley de resolución de reclamaciones internacionales de 1949.
 (3) Efecto de las determinaciones de entidades extranjeras o internacionales .– Al determinar el monto o la propiedad de un reclamo en una acción bajo este título, el tribunal no aceptará como prueba concluyente ningún hallazgo, orden, sentencia o decreto de agencias administrativas o tribunales de países extranjeros u organizaciones internacionales que declaran el valor de la reclamación o la invalidan, a menos que se haya encontrado la declaración de valor o la invalidación de conformidad con el arbitraje internacional vinculante al que los Estados Unidos o el reclamante presentaron la reclamación.
 (b) Modificación de la Ley de liquidación de reclamaciones internacionales de 1949 .– El Título V de la Ley de liquidación de reclamaciones internacionales de 1949 (22 U.S.C. 1643 y siguientes) se modifica agregando al final la siguiente nueva sección:
 “DETERMINACIÓN DE LA PROPIEDAD DE RECLAMACIONES REFERIDAS POR LOS TRIBUNALES DE DISTRITO DE LOS ESTADOS UNIDOS
 “Sec. 514. A pesar de cualquier otra disposición de esta Ley y solo a los efectos de la sección 302 de la Ley de Libertad y Solidaridad Democrática de Cuba (LIBERTAD) de 1996, un tribunal de distrito de los Estados Unidos, para fines de investigación, puede referirse a la Comisión , y la Comisión puede determinar, preguntas sobre el monto y la propiedad de un reclamo por parte de un nacional de los Estados Unidos (como se define en la sección 4 de la Ley de Libertad y Solidaridad Democrática de Cuba (LIBERTAD) de 1996), que resulta de la confiscación de bienes por parte de Gobierno de Cuba descrito en la sección.
503 (a), sea o no el nacional de los Estados Unidos calificado como nacional de los Estados Unidos (según se define en la sección 502 (1)) en el momento de la acción por parte del Gobierno de Cuba “.
 (c) Regla de construcción .– Nada en esta Ley o en la sección 514 de la Ley de Liquidación de Reclamos Internacionales de 1949, según se agrega en la subsección (b), se interpretará –
 (1) exigir o autorizar de otro modo las reclamaciones de ciudadanos cubanos que se convirtieron en ciudadanos de los Estados Unidos después de que sus bienes fueron confiscados para ser incluidos en las reclamaciones certificadas ante el Secretario de Estado por la Comisión de Liquidación de Reclamaciones Extranjeras para fines de negociación futura y de adopción de reclamaciones con un gobierno amigo en Cuba cuando se restablecen las relaciones diplomáticas; o
 (2) como reemplazo, modificación o alteración de cualquier otra forma de las certificaciones que se hayan realizado bajo el título V de la Ley de Resolución de Reclamos Internacionales de 1949 antes de la fecha de la promulgación de esta Ley.

SEC. 304. EXCLUSIVIDAD DEL PROCEDIMIENTO DE CERTIFICACIÓN DE LA COMISIÓN DE SOLUCIÓN DE RECLAMACIONES EXTRANJERAS.

 El Título V de la Ley de liquidación de reclamaciones internacionales de 1949 (22 U.S.C. 1643 y siguientes), según fue enmendada por la sección 303, se modifica aún más agregando al final la siguiente sección nueva:
 “EXCLUSIVIDAD DEL PROCEDIMIENTO DE CERTIFICACIÓN DE LA COMISIÓN DE ACUERDO DE RECLAMACIONES EXTRANJERAS
 “Sec. 515. (a) Sujeto a la subsección (b), ni ningún ciudadano de los Estados Unidos que fuera elegible para presentar una reclamación bajo la sección 503 pero no presentó oportunamente dicha reclamación bajo esa sección, ni ninguna persona que no fuera elegible para presentar una reclamación conforme a la sección 503, ni a ningún ciudadano de Cuba, incluida ninguna agencia, agencia, subdivisión o empresa del Gobierno de Cuba o cualquier gobierno local de Cuba, ni ningún sucesor de la misma, ya sea reconocido o no por los Estados Unidos, tener un reclamo para, participar en, o de lo contrario tener un interés en, los beneficios de la compensación o la compensación no monetaria pagada o asignada a un nacional de los Estados Unidos en virtud de un reclamo certificado por la Comisión según la sección 507, ni ningún tribunal de distrito de Los Estados Unidos tienen jurisdicción para adjudicar cualquier reclamación de este tipo.
 “(b) Nada en la subsección (a) se interpretará de manera que reste o afecte de otro modo a cualquier derecho sobre las acciones del capital social de los nacionales de los Estados Unidos que poseen reclamaciones certificadas por la Comisión conforme a la sección 507.”.

SEC. 305. LIMITATION OF ACTIONS.

An action under section 302 may not be brought more than 2 years after the trafficking giving rise to the action has ceased to occur.

SEC. 306. FECHA EFECTIVA.

 (a) En General .– Sujeto a los incisos (b) y (c), este título y las enmiendas hechas por este título entrarán en vigencia el 1 de agosto de 1996.
 (b) Autoridad de Suspensión .–
 (1) Autoridad de suspensión .– El Presidente puede suspender la fecha de vigencia de la subsección (a) por un período no mayor a 6 meses si el Presidente determina e informa por escrito a los comités del Congreso correspondientes al menos 15 días antes de la fecha de vigencia. que la suspensión es necesaria para los intereses nacionales de los Estados Unidos y acelerará la transición a la democracia en Cuba.
 (2) Suspensiones adicionales .– El Presidente puede suspender la fecha de vigencia de la subsección (a) por períodos adicionales de no más de 6 meses cada uno, cada uno de los cuales comenzará el día después del último día del período durante el cual se suspenda está en vigencia bajo esta subsección, si el Presidente determina e informa por escrito a los comités del Congreso correspondientes al menos 15 días antes de la fecha en que debe comenzar la suspensión adicional, la suspensión es necesaria para los intereses nacionales de los Estados Unidos y acelerar una transición a la democracia en cuba.
 (c) Otras Autoridades .–
 (1) Suspensión .– Después de que este título y las modificaciones de este título hayan entrado en vigor–
 (A) ninguna persona deberá adquirir un interés de propiedad en ninguna acción potencial o pendiente bajo este título;
y
 (B) el Presidente puede suspender el derecho a presentar una acción bajo este título con respecto a los bienes confiscados por un período no mayor a 6 meses si el Presidente determina e informa por escrito a los comités del Congreso correspondientes al menos 15 días antes de la suspensión entra en vigencia que dicha suspensión es necesaria para los intereses nacionales de los Estados Unidos y acelerará la transición a la democracia en Cuba.
 (2) Suspensiones adicionales .– El Presidente puede suspender el derecho a presentar una acción bajo este título por períodos adicionales de no más de 6 meses cada uno, cada uno de los cuales comenzará el día después del último día del período durante el cual la suspensión está en vigencia bajo esta subsección, si el Presidente determina e informa por escrito a los comités del Congreso correspondientes al menos 15 días antes de la fecha en que debe comenzar la suspensión adicional, que la suspensión es necesaria para los intereses nacionales de los Estados Unidos y Acelerará una transición a la democracia en Cuba.
 (3) Demandas pendientes .– Las suspensiones de acciones conforme al párrafo (1) no afectarán a las demandas iniciadas antes de la fecha de dicha suspensión, y en todas esas demandas, se deberán tener procedimientos, apelaciones y juicios dictados de la misma manera. y con el mismo efecto que si no hubiera ocurrido la suspensión.
 (d) Rescisión de la suspensión .– El Presidente puede rescindir cualquier suspensión hecha bajo la subsección
(b) o (c) luego de informar a los comités del Congreso apropiados que hacerlo acelerará la transición a la democracia en Cuba.

TITLE IV–EXCLUSION OF CERTAIN ALIENS

SEC. 401. EXCLUSION FROM THE UNITED STATES OF ALIENS WHO HAVE CONFISCATED PROPERTY OF UNITED STATES NATIONALS OR WHO TRAFFIC IN SUCH PROPERTY.

(a) Grounds for Exclusion.–The Secretary of State shall deny a visa to, and the Attorney General shall exclude from the United States, any alien who the Secretary of State determines is a person who, after the date of the enactment of this Act–
(1) has confiscated, or has directed or overseen the confiscation of, property a claim to which is owned by a United States national, or converts or has converted for personal gain confiscated property, a claim to which is owned by a United States national;
(2) traffics in confiscated property, a claim to which is owned by a United States national;
(3) is a corporate officer, principal, or shareholder with a controlling interest of an entity which has been involved in the confiscation of property or trafficking in confiscated property, a claim to which is owned by a United States national; or
(4) is a spouse, minor child, or agent of a person excludable under paragraph (1), (2), or (3).
(b) Definitions.–As used in this section, the following terms have the following meanings:
(1) Confiscated; confiscation.–The terms “confiscated” and “confiscation” refer to–
(A) the nationalization, expropriation, or other seizure by the Cuban Government of ownership or control of property–
(i) without the property having been returned or adequate and effective compensation provided;
or
(ii) without the claim to the property having been settled pursuant to an international claims settlement agreement or other mutually accepted settlement procedure; and
(B) the repudiation by the Cuban Government of, the default by the Cuban Government on, or the failure of the Cuban Government to pay–
(i) a debt of any enterprise which has been nationalized, expropriated, or otherwise taken by the
Cuban Government;
(ii) a debt which is a charge on property nationalized, expropriated, or otherwise taken by the
Cuban Government; or
(iii) a debt which was incurred by the Cuban Government in satisfaction or settlement of a confiscated property claim.
(2) Traffics.–(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), a person “traffics” in confiscated property if that person knowingly and intentionally–
(i)(I) transfers, distributes, dispenses, brokers, or otherwise disposes of confiscated property,
(II) purchases, receives, obtains control of, or otherwise acquires confiscated property, or
(III) improves (other than for routine maintenance), invests in (by contribution of funds or anything of value, other than for routine maintenance), or begins after the date of the enactment of this Act to manage, lease, possess, use, or hold an interest in confiscated property,
(ii) enters into a commercial arrangement using or otherwise benefiting from confiscated property, or
(iii) causes, directs, participates in, or profits from, trafficking (as described in clause (i) or (ii)) by another person, or otherwise engages in trafficking (as described in clause (i) or (ii)) through another person, without the authorization of any United States national who holds a claim to the property.
(B) The term “traffics” does not include–
(i) the delivery of international telecommunication signals to Cuba;
(ii) the trading or holding of securities publicly traded or held, unless the trading is with or by a person determined by the Secretary of the Treasury to be a specially designated national;
(iii) transactions and uses of property incident to lawful travel to Cuba, to the extent that such transactions and uses of property are necessary to the conduct of such travel; or
(iv) transactions and uses of property by a person who is both a citizen of Cuba and a resident of
Cuba, and who is not an official of the Cuban Government or the ruling political party in Cuba.
(c) Exemption.–This section shall not apply where the Secretary of State finds, on a case by case basis, that the entry into the United States of the person who would otherwise be excluded under this section is necessary for medical reasons or for purposes of litigation of an action under title III.

(d) Effective Date.–
(1) In general.–This section applies to aliens seeking to enter the United States on or after the date of the enactment of this Act.
(2) Trafficking.–This section applies only with respect to acts within the meaning of “traffics” that occur on or after the date of the enactment of this Act.

Speaker of the House of Representatives.
Vice President of the United States and President of the Senate.
Signed by the President of the United States, March 12, 1996.